Manifestaciones clínicas y resultados materno-perinatales del COVID-19 asociado al embarazo: Una revisión sistemática

Palabras clave: Evaluación de síntomas, Complicaciones del embarazo, Infecciones por Coronavirus, Resultado del embarazo

Resumen

Objetivos: Resumir la literatura sobre las manifestaciones clínicas y resultados materno-perinatales de la infección por COVID-19 asociada al embarazo. Material y métodos: Se revisaron ocho bases de datos electrónicas (Science Direct, Pubmed, Lilacs, Scielo, Redalyc, LitCovid, EBSCO y Scopus). Se consideraron estudios primarios a texto completo en idioma español e inglés; publicados entre el 01 de enero y 15 de mayo de 2020; y realizados en gestantes con diagnóstico confirmado de COVID-19 (reacción en cadena polimerasa con transcripción inversa [RT-PCR]. Resultados: Se incluyeron 15 estudios que informaron 224 casos de infección por COVID-19 asociada al embarazo, principalmente en gestantes del tercer trimestre (13/15). La tos y fiebre fueron las principales manifestaciones clínicas reportadas en todas las investigaciones. Menos de la tercera parte de estudios muestran al dolor abdominal como manifestación obstétrica que motiva la búsqueda de atención. El antecedente epidemiológico de exposición y las alteraciones en exámenes auxiliares de laboratorio (linfopenia y PCR elevado, principalmente) son reportadas con regular frecuencia. La enfermedad por COVID-19 asociado al embarazo se presenta principalmente de forma leve; asimismo, la mortalidad e ingreso a UCI son resultados maternos exclusivamente asociados a las pocas presentaciones severas. La cesárea es la vía de culminación mayormente empleada, siendo en pocos casos la neumonía por COVID-19 la indicación citada. El bajo peso al nacer y el ingreso a UCIN son resultados perinatales descritos en 9 de 15 estudios, existiendo poca mortalidad perinatal. Solo en tres estudios se reporta que existe transmisión vertical. Conclusión: La enfermedad por COVID-19 asociado al embarazo se reporta principalmente en gestantes de tercer trimestre, con fiebre y tos presentes a la admisión, siendo mayormente casos leves. Asimismo, genera pocas complicaciones materno-perinatales; sin embargo, en casos severos la morbimortalidad se hace más frecuente.

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Publicado
2020-07-03
Sección
Artículos de revisión